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Tin (Sn)

Tin is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Sn and atomic number 50 with an atomic weight of 118.711 u and is classed as post-transition metal and is part of group 14 (carbon group). Tin is solid at room temperature.

Tin in the periodic table

Atomic number50
Group14 (Carbon group)
ClassificationPost-Transition Metal
AppearanceSilvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Color Silver
Number of protons50 p+
Number of neutrons69 n0
Number of electrons50 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaTin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (for Latin:stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both neighboring group-14 elements, germanium and lead, and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density7.365 g/cm3
Atomic weight118.711 u

Thermal properties

Melting point505.08 K
231.93 °C
449.474 °F
Boiling point2875 K
2601.85 °C
4715.33 °F
Heat of vaporization290.37 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.96
Electron affinity107.298 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 708.6 kJ/mol
  2. 1411.8 kJ/mol
  3. 2943 kJ/mol
  4. 3930.3 kJ/mol
  5. 7456 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for tin

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Valence electrons 4
Valency electrons 2,4
Bohr model
TinElectron shell for Tin, created by Injosoft ABSn
Figure: Shell diagram of Tin (Sn) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Tin

DiscoveryAsia Minor (3500 BC)
Discovery of tin
Tin extraction and use can be dated to the beginnings of the Bronze Age around 3000 BC, when it was observed that copper objects formed of polymetallic ores with different metal contents had different physical properties. The earliest bronze objects had a tin or arsenic content of less than 2% and are believed to be the result of unintentional alloying due to trace metal content in the copper ore. The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC.


List of unique identifiers for Tin in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-31-5
ChemSpider ID4509318
EC number231-141-8
PubChem CID Number5352426