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Antimony (Sb)

Antimony is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Sb and atomic number 51 with an atomic weight of 121.76 u and is classed as metalloid and is part of group 15 (nitrogen group). Antimony is solid at room temperature.

Antimony in the periodic table

Atomic number51
Group15 (Nitrogen group)
AppearanceSilvery lustrous gray
Color Silver
Number of protons51 p+
Number of neutrons71 n0
Number of electrons51 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaAntimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin:stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density6.697 g/cm3
Atomic weight121.76 u

Thermal properties

Melting point903.78 K
630.63 °C
1167.134 °F
Boiling point1908 K
1634.85 °C
2974.73 °F
Heat of vaporization67.97 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.05
Electron affinity101.059 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 834 kJ/mol
  2. 1594.9 kJ/mol
  3. 2440 kJ/mol
  4. 4260 kJ/mol
  5. 5400 kJ/mol
  6. 10400 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for antimony

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p3
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Valence electrons 5
Valency electrons 3,5
Bohr model
AntimonyElectron shell for Antimony, created by Injosoft ABSb
Figure: Shell diagram of Antimony (Sb) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Antimony

DiscoveryJabir ibn Hayyan (815)
Discovery of antimony
Dioscorides and Pliny both describe the accidental production of metallic antimony from stibnite, but only seem to recognize the metal as lead. The intentional isolation of antimony is described in the works attributed to the Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (c. 850–950). In Europe, the metal was being produced and used by 1540, when it was described by Vannoccio Biringuccio. The first discovery of naturally occurring pure antimony in the Earth's crust was described by the Swedish scientist and local mine district engineer Anton von Swab in 1783; the type-sample was collected from the Sala Silver Mine in the Bergslagen mining district of Sala, Västmanland, Sweden.


List of unique identifiers for Antimony in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-36-0
ChemSpider ID4510681
EC number231-146-5
PubChem CID Number5354495