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Cadmium (Cd)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and like mercury it shows a low melting point compared to transition metals.

Cadmium in the periodic table

SymbolCd
Atomic number48
Group12
Period5
Blockd
Element categoryTransition Metal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density8.65 g/cm3
Atomic weight112.414 u
Melting point594.22 K
321.07 °C
609.926 °F
Boiling point1040 K
766.85 °C
1412.33 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.69
Electron affinity-68 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, +1, +2
(a mildly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
1867.8 kJ/mol
2 1631.4 kJ/mol
3 3616 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 2

History

Discovered1817
Discovered byKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann
Friedrich Stromeyer
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann
Named byIsotopes of cadmium
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