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Silver (Ag)

Silver is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47 with an atomic weight of 107.868 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 11 (coinage metals). Silver is solid at room temperature.

Silver in the periodic table

Atomic number47
Group11 (Coinage metals)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceLustrous white metal
Color Silver
Number of protons47 p+
Number of neutrons61 n0
Number of electrons47 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSilver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (Greek:άργυρος árguros, Latin:argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and reflectivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density10.49 g/cm3
Atomic weight107.868 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1234.93 K
961.78 °C
1763.204 °F
Boiling point2435 K
2161.85 °C
3923.33 °F
Heat of vaporization250.63 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.93
Electron affinity125.862 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, −1, +1, +2, +3
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 731 kJ/mol
  2. 2070 kJ/mol
  3. 3361 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for silver

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Kr] 4d10 5s1
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s1
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 1
Valence electrons 1
Valency electrons 1
Bohr model
SilverElectron shell for Silver, created by Injosoft ABAg
Figure: Shell diagram of Silver (Ag) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Silver

DiscoveryAsia Minor (5000 BC)
Discovery of silver
Silver was one of the seven metals of antiquity that were known to prehistoric humans and whose discovery is thus lost to history. But probably silver was discovered in Asia Minor shortly after copper and gold. In particular, the three metals of group 11, copper, silver, and gold, occur in the elemental form in nature and were probably used as the first primitive forms of money as opposed to simple bartering. However, unlike copper, silver did not lead to the growth of metallurgy on account of its low structural strength, and was more often used ornamentally or as money.


List of unique identifiers for Silver in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-22-4
ChemSpider ID22394
EC number231-131-3
PubChem CID Number23954