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Beryllium (Be)

Beryllium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Be and atomic number 4 with an atomic weight of 9.01218 u and is classed as alkaline earth metal and is part of group 2 (alkaline earth metal). Beryllium is solid at room temperature.

Beryllium in the periodic table

Atomic number4
Group2 (Alkaline earth metal)
ClassificationAlkaline Earth Metal
AppearanceWhite-gray metallic
Color SlateGray
Number of protons4 p+
Number of neutrons5 n0
Number of electrons4 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaBeryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is created through stellar nucleosynthesis and is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density1.85 g/cm3
Atomic weight9.01218 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1560 K
1286.85 °C
2348.33 °F
Boiling point2742 K
2468.85 °C
4475.93 °F
Heat of vaporization297 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.57
Electron affinity-48 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 899.5 kJ/mol
  2. 1757.1 kJ/mol
  3. 14848.7 kJ/mol
  4. 21006.6 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for beryllium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[He] 2s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 2
Valence electrons 2
Valency electrons 2
Bohr model
BerylliumElectron shell for Beryllium, created by Injosoft ABBe
Figure: Shell diagram of Beryllium (Be) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Beryllium

DiscoveryLouis Nicolas Vauquelin (1798)
First isolationFriedrich Wöhler, Antoine Bussy (1828)
Discovery of beryllium
The mineral beryl, which contains beryllium, has been used at least since the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. In the first century CE, Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder mentioned in his encyclopedia Natural History that beryl and emerald ("smaragdus") were similar. The Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis, written in the third or fourth century CE, contains notes on how to prepare artificial emerald and beryl. In a 1798 paper read before the Institut de France, Vauquelin reported that he found a new "earth" by dissolving aluminium hydroxide from emerald and beryl in an additional alkali. The editors of the journal Annales de Chimie et de Physique named the new earth "glucine" for the sweet taste of some of its compounds. Klaproth preferred the name "beryllina" due to the fact that yttria also formed sweet salts. The name "beryllium" was first used by Wöhler in 1828.


List of unique identifiers for Beryllium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-41-7
ChemSpider ID4573986
EC number231-150-7
PubChem CID Number5460467