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Boron (B)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaBoron is a metalloid chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in both the Solar system and the Earth's crust. Boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals.

Boron in the periodic table

Atomic number5
Element categoryMetalloid

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density2.08 g/cm3
Atomic weight10.81 u
Melting point2349 K
2075.85 °C
3768.53 °F
Boiling point4200 K
3926.85 °C
7100.33 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.04
Electron affinity26.989 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−5, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3
(a mildly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
1800.6 kJ/mol
2 2427.1 kJ/mol
3 3659.7 kJ/mol
4 25025.8 kJ/mol
5 32826.7 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[He] 2s2 2p1
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p1
Electrons per shell2, 3


Discovered byJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac
Louis Jacques Thénard
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