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Lithium (Li)

Lithium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Li and atomic number 3 with an atomic weight of 6.938 u and is classed as alkali metal and is part of group 1 (alkali metal). Lithium is solid at room temperature.

Lithium in the periodic table

Atomic number3
Group1 (Alkali metal)
ClassificationAlkali Metal
Color Silver
Number of protons3 p+
Number of neutrons4 n0
Number of electrons3 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaLithium (from Greek:λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density0.534 g/cm3
Atomic weight6.938 u

Thermal properties

Melting point453.65 K
180.5 °C
356.9 °F
Boiling point1603 K
1329.85 °C
2425.73 °F
Heat of vaporization147.1 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)0.98
Electron affinity59.6326 kJ/mol
Oxidation states+1
(a strongly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 520.2 kJ/mol
  2. 7298.1 kJ/mol
  3. 11815 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for lithium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[He] 2s1
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s1
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 1
Valence electrons 1
Valency electrons 1
Bohr model
LithiumElectron shell for Lithium, created by Injosoft ABLi
Figure: Shell diagram of Lithium (Li) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Lithium

DiscoveryJohan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolationWilliam Thomas Brande, Sir Humphrey Davy (1821)
Discovery of lithium
Petalite was discovered in 1800 by the Brazilian chemist and statesman José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva in a mine on the island of Utö, Sweden. However, it was not until 1817 that Johan August Arfwedson, then working in the laboratory of the chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, detected the presence of a new element while analyzing petalite ore. This element formed compounds similar to those of sodium and potassium, though its carbonate and hydroxide were less soluble in water and less alkaline. Berzelius gave the alkaline material the name "lithion/lithina", from the Greek word λιθoς (transliterated as lithos, meaning "stone"), to reflect its discovery in a solid mineral, as opposed to potassium, which had been discovered in plant ashes, and sodium, which was known partly for its high abundance in animal blood. He named the metal inside the material "lithium".


List of unique identifiers for Lithium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7439-93-2
ChemSpider ID2293625
EC number231-102-5
PubChem CID Number3028194