We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our website, to show you personalized content and targeted ads, to analyze our website traffic, and to understand where our visitors are coming from. For more information, please review our cookie policy and privacy policy.
By choosing I Accept, you consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies.

Zinc (Zn)

Zinc is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Zn and atomic number 30 with an atomic weight of 65.382 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 12 (zinc group). Zinc is solid at room temperature.

Zinc in the periodic table

Atomic number30
Group12 (Zinc group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
Color SlateGray
Number of protons30 p+
Number of neutrons35 n0
Number of electrons30 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaZinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium:its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density7.14 g/cm3
Atomic weight65.382 u

Thermal properties

Melting point692.68 K
419.53 °C
787.154 °F
Boiling point1180 K
906.85 °C
1664.33 °F
Heat of vaporization115.3 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.65
Electron affinity-58 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, 0, +1, +2
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 906.4 kJ/mol
  2. 1733.3 kJ/mol
  3. 3833 kJ/mol
  4. 5731 kJ/mol
  5. 7970 kJ/mol
  6. 10400 kJ/mol
  7. 12900 kJ/mol
  8. 16800 kJ/mol
  9. 19600 kJ/mol
  10. 23000 kJ/mol
  11. 26400 kJ/mol
  12. 29990 kJ/mol
  13. 40490 kJ/mol
  14. 43800 kJ/mol
  15. 47300 kJ/mol
  16. 52300 kJ/mol
  17. 55900 kJ/mol
  18. 59700 kJ/mol
  19. 67300 kJ/mol
  20. 71200 kJ/mol
  21. 179100 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for zinc

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 2
Valence electrons 2
Valency electrons 2
Bohr model
ZincElectron shell for Zinc, created by Injosoft ABZn
Figure: Shell diagram of Zinc (Zn) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Zinc

DiscoveryIndian metallurgists (1000 BC)
First isolationAndreas Sigismund Marggraf (1746)
Named byParacelsus
Recognized as a unique metal byRasaratna Samuccaya (1300)
Discovery of zinc
Used as a component of brass since antiquity (before 1000 BC) by Indian metallurgists, but its true nature was not understood in ancient times. Identified as a distinct metal in the Rasaratna Samuccaya around the 14th century of the Christian era and by the alchemist Paracelsus in 1526. German chemist Andreas Marggraf normally gets credit for discovering pure metallic zinc 1746, even though Swedish chemist Anton von Swab had distilled zinc from calamine four years previously.


List of unique identifiers for Zinc in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-66-6
ChemSpider ID22430
EC number231-175-3
PubChem CID Number23994