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Gallium (Ga)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).

Gallium in the periodic table

Atomic number31
Element categoryPost-Transition Metal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density5.91 g/cm3
Atomic weight69.7231 u
Melting point302.915 K
29.765 °C
85.577 °F
Boiling point2673 K
2399.85 °C
4351.73 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.81
Electron affinity41 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−5, −4, −3, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
1578.8 kJ/mol
2 1979.3 kJ/mol
3 2963 kJ/mol
4 6180 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 3


Discovered byPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
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