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Manganese (Mn)

Manganese is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Mn and atomic number 25 with an atomic weight of 54.938 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 7 (manganese group). Manganese is solid at room temperature.

Manganese in the periodic table

Atomic number25
Group7 (Manganese group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceSilvery metallic
Color Silver
Number of protons25 p+
Number of neutrons30 n0
Number of electrons25 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaManganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density7.21 g/cm3
Atomic weight54.938 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1519 K
1245.85 °C
2274.53 °F
Boiling point2334 K
2060.85 °C
3741.53 °F
Heat of vaporization219.74 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.55
Electron affinity-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7
(depending on the oxidation state, an acidic, basic, or amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 717.3 kJ/mol
  2. 1509 kJ/mol
  3. 3248 kJ/mol
  4. 4940 kJ/mol
  5. 6990 kJ/mol
  6. 9220 kJ/mol
  7. 11500 kJ/mol
  8. 18770 kJ/mol
  9. 21400 kJ/mol
  10. 23960 kJ/mol
  11. 27590 kJ/mol
  12. 30330 kJ/mol
  13. 33150 kJ/mol
  14. 38880 kJ/mol
  15. 41987 kJ/mol
  16. 109480 kJ/mol
  17. 118100 kJ/mol
  18. 127100 kJ/mol
  19. 138600 kJ/mol
  20. 148500 kJ/mol
  21. 158600 kJ/mol
  22. 172500 kJ/mol
  23. 181380 kJ/mol
  24. 785450 kJ/mol
  25. 827067 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for manganese

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 13, 2
Valence electrons 7
Valency electrons 2,4,7
Bohr model
ManganeseElectron shell for Manganese, created by Injosoft ABMn
Figure: Shell diagram of Manganese (Mn) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Manganese

DiscoveryCarl Wilhelm Scheele (1774)
First isolationJohann Gottlieb Gahn (1774)
Discovery of manganese
Manganese compounds were used by Egyptian and Roman glassmakers, either to add to, or remove, color from glass. Use as "glassmakers soap" continued through the Middle Ages until modern times and is evident in 14th-century glass from Venice. Because it was used in glassmaking, manganese dioxide was available for experiments by alchemists, the first chemists. Ignatius Gottfried Kaim (1770) and Johann Glauber (17th century) discovered that manganese dioxide could be converted to permanganate, a useful laboratory reagent. By the mid-18th century, the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele used manganese dioxide to produce chlorine. By the mid-18th century, Carl Wilhelm Scheele used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon.


List of unique identifiers for Manganese in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7439-96-5
ChemSpider ID22372
EC number231-105-1
PubChem CID Number23930