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Scandium (Sc)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaScandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.

Scandium in the periodic table

Atomic number21
Element categoryTransition Metal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density2.985 g/cm3
Atomic weight44.9559 u
Melting point1814 K
1540.85 °C
2805.53 °F
Boiling point3109 K
2835.85 °C
5136.53 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.36
Electron affinity18 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
1633.1 kJ/mol
2 1235 kJ/mol
3 2388.6 kJ/mol
4 7090.6 kJ/mol
5 8843 kJ/mol
6 10679 kJ/mol
7 13310 kJ/mol
8 15250 kJ/mol
9 17370 kJ/mol
10 21726 kJ/mol
11 24102 kJ/mol
12 66320 kJ/mol
13 73010 kJ/mol
14 80160 kJ/mol
15 89490 kJ/mol
16 97400 kJ/mol
17 105600 kJ/mol
18 117000 kJ/mol
19 124270 kJ/mol
20 547530 kJ/mol
21 582163 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 9, 2


Discovered byLars Fredrik Nilson
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