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Titanium (Ti)

Titanium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Ti and atomic number 22 with an atomic weight of 47.8671 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 4 (titanium group). Titanium is solid at room temperature.

Titanium in the periodic table

Atomic number22
Group4 (Titanium group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceSilvery grey-white metallic
Color Silver
Number of protons22 p+
Number of neutrons26 n0
Number of electrons22 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaTitanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density4.506 g/cm3
Atomic weight47.8671 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1941 K
1667.85 °C
3034.13 °F
Boiling point3560 K
3286.85 °C
5948.33 °F
Heat of vaporization425.2 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.54
Electron affinity7.289 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 658.8 kJ/mol
  2. 1309.8 kJ/mol
  3. 2652.5 kJ/mol
  4. 4174.6 kJ/mol
  5. 9581 kJ/mol
  6. 11533 kJ/mol
  7. 13590 kJ/mol
  8. 16440 kJ/mol
  9. 18530 kJ/mol
  10. 20833 kJ/mol
  11. 25575 kJ/mol
  12. 28125 kJ/mol
  13. 76015 kJ/mol
  14. 83280 kJ/mol
  15. 90880 kJ/mol
  16. 100700 kJ/mol
  17. 109100 kJ/mol
  18. 117800 kJ/mol
  19. 129900 kJ/mol
  20. 137530 kJ/mol
  21. 602930 kJ/mol
  22. 639294 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for titanium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 10, 2
Valence electrons 4
Valency electrons 2,3,4
Bohr model
TitaniumElectron shell for Titanium, created by Injosoft ABTi
Figure: Shell diagram of Titanium (Ti) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Titanium

DiscoveryWilliam Gregor (1791)
First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)
Named byMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1795)
Discovery of titanium
Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the clergyman and geologist William Gregor as an inclusion of a mineral in Cornwall, Great Britain. Gregor recognized the presence of a new element in ilmenite when he found black sand by a stream and noticed the sand was attracted by a magnet. Analyzing the sand, he determined the presence of two metal oxides: iron oxide (explaining the attraction to the magnet) and 45.25% of a white metallic oxide he could not identify. Realizing that the unidentified oxide contained a metal that did not match any known element, in 1791 Gregor reported his findings in both German and French science journals:Crell's Annalen and Observations et Mémoires sur la Physique. Around the same time, Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein produced a similar substance, but could not identify it. The oxide was independently rediscovered in 1795 by Prussian chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in rutile from Boinik (the German name of Bajmócska), a village in Hungary (now Bojničky in Slovakia). Klaproth found that it contained a new element and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology. After hearing about Gregor's earlier discovery, he obtained a sample of manaccanite and confirmed that it contained titanium.


List of unique identifiers for Titanium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-32-6
ChemSpider ID22402
EC number231-142-3
PubChem CID Number23963