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Gadolinium (Gd)

Gadolinium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Gd and atomic number 64 with an atomic weight of 157.253 u and is classed as lanthanide. Gadolinium is solid at room temperature.

Gadolinium in the periodic table

Atomic number64
AppearanceSilvery white
Color Silver
Number of protons64 p+
Number of neutrons93 n0
Number of electrons64 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density7.9 g/cm3
Atomic weight157.253 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1585 K
1311.85 °C
2393.33 °F
Boiling point3273 K
2999.85 °C
5431.73 °F
Heat of vaporization311.71 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.2
Electron affinity13.22 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3
(a mildly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 593.4 kJ/mol
  2. 1170 kJ/mol
  3. 1990 kJ/mol
  4. 4250 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for gadolinium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f7 5s2 5p6 5d1 6s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Valence electrons 2
Valency electrons 3
Bohr model
GadoliniumElectron shell for Gadolinium, created by Injosoft ABGd
Figure: Shell diagram of Gadolinium (Gd) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Gadolinium

DiscoveryJean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolationLecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Discovery of gadolinium
Gadolinium is named after the mineral gadolinite, in turn named after Finnish chemist and geologist Johan Gadolin. In 1880, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac observed the spectroscopic lines from gadolinium in samples of gadolinite (which actually contains relatively little gadolinium, but enough to show a spectrum) and in the separate mineral cerite. The latter mineral proved to contain far more of the element with the new spectral line. De Marignac eventually separated a mineral oxide from cerite, which he realized was the oxide of this new element. He named the oxide "gadolinia". Because he realized that "gadolinia" was the oxide of a new element, he is credited with the discovery of gadolinium. The French chemist Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran carried out the separation of gadolinium metal from gadolinia in 1886.


List of unique identifiers for Gadolinium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-54-2
ChemSpider ID22418
EC number231-162-2
PubChem CID Number23982