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Gadolinium (Gd)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form.

Gadolinium in the periodic table

SymbolGd
Atomic number64
Group0
Period6
Blockf
Element categoryLanthanide

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density7.9 g/cm3
Atomic weight157.253 u
Melting point1585 K
1311.85 °C
2393.33 °F
Boiling point3273 K
2999.85 °C
5431.73 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.2
Electron affinity13.22 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3
(a mildly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
1593.4 kJ/mol
2 1170 kJ/mol
3 1990 kJ/mol
4 4250 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f7 5s2 5p6 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2

History

Discovered1880
Discovered byJean Charles Galissard de Marignac
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