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Gadolinium (Gd)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form.

Gadolinium in the periodic table

Atomic number64
Element categoryLanthanide

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density7.9 g/cm3
Atomic weight157.253 u
Melting point1585 K
1311.85 °C
2393.33 °F
Boiling point3273 K
2999.85 °C
5431.73 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.2
Electron affinity13.22 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3
(a mildly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
1593.4 kJ/mol
2 1170 kJ/mol
3 1990 kJ/mol
4 4250 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f7 5s2 5p6 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2


Discovered byJean Charles Galissard de Marignac
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