We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our website, to show you personalized content and targeted ads, to analyze our website traffic, and to understand where our visitors are coming from. For more information, please review our cookie policy and privacy policy.
By choosing I Accept, you consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies.

Carbon (C)

Carbon is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol C and atomic number 6 with an atomic weight of 12.0096 u and is classed as nonmetal and is part of group 14 (carbon group). Carbon is solid at room temperature.

Carbon in the periodic table

Atomic number6
Group14 (Carbon group)
Color Black
Number of protons6 p+
Number of neutrons6 n0
Number of electrons6 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCarbon (from Latin:carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. On the periodic table, it is the first (row 2) of six elements in column (group) 14, which have in common the composition of their outer electron shell. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density1.821 g/cm3
Atomic weight12.0096 u

Thermal properties

Melting point-
Boiling point-
Heat of vaporization715 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.55
Electron affinity121.776 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(a mildly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 1086.5 kJ/mol
  2. 2352.6 kJ/mol
  3. 4620.5 kJ/mol
  4. 6222.7 kJ/mol
  5. 37831 kJ/mol
  6. 47277 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for carbon

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[He] 2s2 2p2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 4
Valence electrons 4
Valency electrons 4
Bohr model
CarbonElectron shell for Carbon, created by Injosoft ABC
Figure: Shell diagram of Carbon (C) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Carbon

DiscoveryEgyptians and Sumerians (3750 BC)
First isolationAntoine Lavoisier (1789)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier (1789)
Discovery of carbon
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations. The earliest known use of charcoal was for the reduction of copper, zinc, and tin ores in the manufacture of bronze, by the Egyptians and Sumerians. Diamonds were known probably as early as 2500 BC in China, while carbon in the form of charcoal was made around Roman times by the same chemistry as it is today, by heating wood in a pyramid covered with clay to exclude air. True chemical analyses were made in the 18th century, and in 1789 carbon was listed by Antoine Lavoisier as an element.


List of unique identifiers for Carbon in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-44-0
ChemSpider ID4575370
EC number231-153-3
PubChem CID Number5462310