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Carbon (C)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCarbon (from Latin:carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. On the periodic table, it is the first (row 2) of six elements in column (group) 14, which have in common the composition of their outer electron shell. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds.

Carbon in the periodic table

Atomic number6
Element categoryNonmetal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density1.821 g/cm3
Atomic weight12.011 u
Melting point-
Boiling point K

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.55
Electron affinity121.776 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(a mildly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
11086.5 kJ/mol
2 2352.6 kJ/mol
3 4620.5 kJ/mol
4 6222.7 kJ/mol
5 37831 kJ/mol
6 47277 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[He] 2s2 2p2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell2, 4


Discovered byEgyptians and Sumerians
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