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Nitrogen (N)

Nitrogen is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol N and atomic number 7 with an atomic weight of 14.0064 u and is classed as nonmetal and is part of group 15 (nitrogen group). Nitrogen is gas at room temperature.

Nitrogen in the periodic table

Atomic number7
Group15 (Nitrogen group)
AppearanceColorless gas, liquid or solid
Color Colorless
Number of protons7 p+
Number of neutrons7 n0
Number of electrons7 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaNitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature, it is a transparent, odorless diatomic gas. Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System.

Physical properties

Phase at STPGas
Density1.251 g/cm3
Atomic weight14.0064 u

Thermal properties

Melting point63.15 K
-210 °C
-346 °F
Boiling point77.355 K
-195.795 °C
-320.431 °F
Heat of vaporization2.7928 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)3.04
Electron affinity-6.8 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5
(a strongly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 1402.3 kJ/mol
  2. 2856 kJ/mol
  3. 4578.1 kJ/mol
  4. 7475 kJ/mol
  5. 9444.9 kJ/mol
  6. 53266.6 kJ/mol
  7. 64360 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for nitrogen

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[He] 2s2 2p3
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p3
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 5
Valence electrons 5
Valency electrons 3
Bohr model
NitrogenElectron shell for Nitrogen, created by Injosoft ABN
Figure: Shell diagram of Nitrogen (N) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Nitrogen

Discovery and first isolationDaniel Rutherford (1772)
Named byJean-Antoine Chaptal (1790)
Discovery of nitrogen
Nitrogen was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, he discovered nitrogen while studying at the University of Edinburgh. He showed that the air in which animals had breathed, even after removal of the exhaled carbon dioxide, was no longer able to burn a candle. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790 when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates.


List of unique identifiers for Nitrogen in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7727-37-9
ChemSpider ID20473555
EC number231-783-9
PubChem CID Number947