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Palladium (Pd)

Palladium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Pd and atomic number 46 with an atomic weight of 106.421 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 10 (nickel group). Palladium is solid at room temperature.

Palladium in the periodic table

Atomic number46
Group10 (Nickel group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceSilvery white
Color Silver
Number of protons46 p+
Number of neutrons60 n0
Number of electrons46 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPalladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density12.023 g/cm3
Atomic weight106.421 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1828.05 K
1554.9 °C
2830.82 °F
Boiling point3236 K
2962.85 °C
5365.13 °F
Heat of vaporization393.3 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.2
Electron affinity54.24 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(a mildly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 804.4 kJ/mol
  2. 1870 kJ/mol
  3. 3177 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for palladium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Kr] 4d10
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18
Valence electrons 10
Valency electrons 4
Bohr model
PalladiumElectron shell for Palladium, created by Injosoft ABPd
Figure: Shell diagram of Palladium (Pd) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Palladium

Discovery and first isolationWilliam Hyde Wollaston (1802)
Discovery of palladium
William Hyde Wollaston noted the discovery of a new noble metal in July 1802 in his lab book and named it palladium in August of the same year. Wollaston purified a quantity of the material and offered it, without naming the discoverer, in a small shop in Soho in April 1803. After harsh criticism from Richard Chenevix, who claimed that palladium was an alloy of platinum and mercury, Wollaston anonymously offered a reward of £20 for 20 grains of synthetic palladium alloy. Chenevix received the Copley Medal in 1803 after he published his experiments on palladium. Wollaston published the discovery of rhodium in 1804 and mentions some of his work on palladium. He disclosed that he was the discoverer of palladium in a publication in 1805. It was named by Wollaston in 1802 after the asteroid 2 Pallas, which had been discovered two months earlier.


List of unique identifiers for Palladium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-05-3
ChemSpider ID22380
EC number231-115-6
PubChem CID Number23938