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Nickel (Ni)

Nickel is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28 with an atomic weight of 58.6934 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 10 (nickel group). Nickel is solid at room temperature.

Nickel in the periodic table

Atomic number28
Group10 (Nickel group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceLustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
Color Gray
Number of protons28 p+
Number of neutrons31 n0
Number of electrons28 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaNickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density8.908 g/cm3
Atomic weight58.6934 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1728 K
1454.85 °C
2650.73 °F
Boiling point3003 K
2729.85 °C
4945.73 °F
Heat of vaporization377.5 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.91
Electron affinity111.65 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(a mildly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 737.1 kJ/mol
  2. 1753 kJ/mol
  3. 3395 kJ/mol
  4. 5300 kJ/mol
  5. 7339 kJ/mol
  6. 10400 kJ/mol
  7. 12800 kJ/mol
  8. 15600 kJ/mol
  9. 18600 kJ/mol
  10. 21670 kJ/mol
  11. 30970 kJ/mol
  12. 34000 kJ/mol
  13. 37100 kJ/mol
  14. 41500 kJ/mol
  15. 44800 kJ/mol
  16. 48100 kJ/mol
  17. 55101 kJ/mol
  18. 58570 kJ/mol
  19. 148700 kJ/mol
  20. 159000 kJ/mol
  21. 169400 kJ/mol
  22. 182700 kJ/mol
  23. 194000 kJ/mol
  24. 205600 kJ/mol
  25. 221400 kJ/mol
  26. 231490 kJ/mol
  27. 992718 kJ/mol
  28. 1039668 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for nickel

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 16, 2
Valence electrons 2 or 10
Valency electrons 3,2
Bohr model
NickelElectron shell for Nickel, created by Injosoft ABNi
Figure: Shell diagram of Nickel (Ni) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Nickel

Discovery and first isolationAxel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Discovery of nickel
Use of nickel (as natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. In medieval Germany, a metallic yellow mineral was found in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) that resembled copper ore. But when miners were unable to get any copper from it, they blamed a mischievous sprite of German mythology, Nickel (similar to Old Nick), for besetting the copper. They called this ore Kupfernickel from German Kupfer 'copper'. This ore is now known as the mineral nickeline (formerly niccolite), a nickel arsenide. In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt tried to extract copper from kupfernickel at a cobalt mine in the village of Los, Sweden, and instead produced a white metal that he named nickel after the spirit that had given its name to the mineral. In modern German, Kupfernickel or Kupfer-Nickel designates the alloy cupronickel.


List of unique identifiers for Nickel in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-02-0
ChemSpider ID910
EC number231-111-4
PubChem CID Number935