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Vanadium (V)

Vanadium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol V and atomic number 23 with an atomic weight of 50.9415 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 5 (vanadium group). Vanadium is solid at room temperature.

Vanadium in the periodic table

Atomic number23
Group5 (Vanadium group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceBlue-silver-grey metal
Color Silver
Number of protons23 p+
Number of neutrons28 n0
Number of electrons23 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaVanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile and malleable transition metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density6 g/cm3
Atomic weight50.9415 u

Thermal properties

Melting point2183 K
1909.85 °C
3469.73 °F
Boiling point3680 K
3406.85 °C
6164.33 °F
Heat of vaporization446.7 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.63
Electron affinity50.911 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−3, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 650.9 kJ/mol
  2. 1414 kJ/mol
  3. 2830 kJ/mol
  4. 4507 kJ/mol
  5. 6298.7 kJ/mol
  6. 12363 kJ/mol
  7. 14530 kJ/mol
  8. 16730 kJ/mol
  9. 19860 kJ/mol
  10. 22240 kJ/mol
  11. 24670 kJ/mol
  12. 29730 kJ/mol
  13. 32446 kJ/mol
  14. 86450 kJ/mol
  15. 94170 kJ/mol
  16. 102300 kJ/mol
  17. 112700 kJ/mol
  18. 121600 kJ/mol
  19. 130700 kJ/mol
  20. 143400 kJ/mol
  21. 151440 kJ/mol
  22. 661050 kJ/mol
  23. 699144 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for vanadium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 11, 2
Valence electrons 5
Valency electrons 2,3,4,5
Bohr model
VanadiumElectron shell for Vanadium, created by Injosoft ABV
Figure: Shell diagram of Vanadium (V) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Vanadium

Discovery and first isolationAndrés Manuel del Río (1801)
Named byNils Gabriel Sefström (1867)
Discovery of vanadium
Spanish scientist Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead". Though he initially presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, he was later erroneously convinced by French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils that the element was just chromium. Then in 1830, Nils Gabriel Sefström generated chlorides of vanadium, thus proving there was a new element, and named it "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís (Freyja). The name was based on the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was ultimately named vanadinite for its vanadium content. In 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element.


List of unique identifiers for Vanadium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-62-2
ChemSpider ID22426
EC number231-171-1
PubChem CID Number23990