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Phosphorus (P)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPhosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. Instead phosphorus-containing minerals are almost always present in their maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks.

Phosphorus in the periodic table

Atomic number15
Element categoryNonmetal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density1.823 g/cm3
Atomic weight30.9738 u
Melting point-
Boiling point K

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.19
Electron affinity72.037 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5
(a mildly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
11011.8 kJ/mol
2 1907 kJ/mol
3 2914.1 kJ/mol
4 4963.6 kJ/mol
5 6273.9 kJ/mol
6 21267 kJ/mol
7 25431 kJ/mol
8 29872 kJ/mol
9 35905 kJ/mol
10 40950 kJ/mol
11 46261 kJ/mol
12 54110 kJ/mol
13 59024 kJ/mol
14 271791 kJ/mol
15 296195 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Ne] 3s2 3p3
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
Electrons per shell2, 8, 5


Discovered byHennig Brand
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