Phosphorus (P)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPhosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. Instead phosphorus-containing minerals are almost always present in their maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks.

Phosphorus in the periodic table

SymbolP
Atomic number15
Group15
Period3
Blockp
Element categoryNonmetal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density1.823 g/cm3
Atomic weight30.9738 u
Melting point K
°C
°F
Boiling point K
°C
°F

Atomära egenskaper

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.19
Electron affinity72.037 kJ/mol
Ionization energies
11011.8 kJ/mol
2 1907 kJ/mol
3 2914.1 kJ/mol
4 4963.6 kJ/mol
5 6273.9 kJ/mol
6 21267 kJ/mol
7 25431 kJ/mol
8 29872 kJ/mol
9 35905 kJ/mol
10 40950 kJ/mol
11 46261 kJ/mol
12 54110 kJ/mol
13 59024 kJ/mol
14 271791 kJ/mol
15 296195 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
Electrons per shell2, 8, 5

History

Discovered1669
Discovered byHennig Brand