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Sulfur (S)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8.

Sulfur in the periodic table

Atomic number16
Element categoryNonmetal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density2.07 g/cm3
Atomic weight32.06 u
Melting point388.36 K
115.21 °C
239.378 °F
Boiling point717.8 K
444.65 °C
832.37 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.58
Electron affinity200.41 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6
(a strongly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
1999.6 kJ/mol
2 2252 kJ/mol
3 3357 kJ/mol
4 4556 kJ/mol
5 7004.3 kJ/mol
6 8495.8 kJ/mol
7 27107 kJ/mol
8 31719 kJ/mol
9 36621 kJ/mol
10 43177 kJ/mol
11 48710 kJ/mol
12 54460 kJ/mol
13 62930 kJ/mol
14 68216 kJ/mol
15 311048 kJ/mol
16 337138 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
Electrons per shell2, 8, 6


Discovered byMiddle East
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