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Sulfur (S)

Sulfur is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol S and atomic number 16 with an atomic weight of 32.059 u and is classed as nonmetal and is part of group 16 (oxygen group). Sulfur is solid at room temperature.

Sulfur in the periodic table

Atomic number16
Group16 (Oxygen group)
AppearanceLemon yellow sintered microcrystals
Color Yellow
Number of protons16 p+
Number of neutrons16 n0
Number of electrons16 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density2.07 g/cm3
Atomic weight32.059 u

Thermal properties

Melting point388.36 K
115.21 °C
239.378 °F
Boiling point717.8 K
444.65 °C
832.37 °F
Heat of vaporization10 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.58
Electron affinity200.41 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6
(a strongly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 999.6 kJ/mol
  2. 2252 kJ/mol
  3. 3357 kJ/mol
  4. 4556 kJ/mol
  5. 7004.3 kJ/mol
  6. 8495.8 kJ/mol
  7. 27107 kJ/mol
  8. 31719 kJ/mol
  9. 36621 kJ/mol
  10. 43177 kJ/mol
  11. 48710 kJ/mol
  12. 54460 kJ/mol
  13. 62930 kJ/mol
  14. 68216 kJ/mol
  15. 311048 kJ/mol
  16. 337138 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for sulfur

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 6
Valence electrons 6
Valency electrons 2
Bohr model
SulfurElectron shell for Sulfur, created by Injosoft ABS
Figure: Shell diagram of Sulfur (S) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Sulfur

DiscoveryMiddle East (2000 BC)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier (1777)
Discovery of sulfur
First used at least 4,000 years ago. According to the Ebers Papyrus, a sulfur ointment was used in ancient Egypt to treat granular eyelids. Designated as one of the two elements of which all metals are composed in the sulfur-mercury theory of metals, first described in pseudo-Apollonius of Tyana's Sirr al-khaliqa ('Secret of Creation') and in the works attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan (both 8th or 9th century). Designated as a univeral element (one of the tria prima) by Paracelsus in the early 16th century. Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier in 1777.


List of unique identifiers for Sulfur in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7704-34-9
ChemSpider ID4515054
EC number231-722-6
PubChem CID Number5362487