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Fluorine (F)

Fluorine is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol F and atomic number 9 with an atomic weight of 18.9984 u and is classed as nonmetal and is part of group 17 (fluorine group). Fluorine is gas at room temperature.

Fluorine in the periodic table

Atomic number9
Group17 (Fluorine group)
Color Colorless
Number of protons9 p+
Number of neutrons10 n0
Number of electrons9 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive:almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine.

Physical properties

Phase at STPGas
Density1.696 g/cm3
Atomic weight18.9984 u

Thermal properties

Melting point53.48 K
-219.67 °C
-363.406 °F
Boiling point85.03 K
-188.12 °C
-306.616 °F
Heat of vaporization3.2698 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)3.98
Electron affinity328.165 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−1, 0
(oxidizes oxygen)
Ionization energies
  1. 1681 kJ/mol
  2. 3374.2 kJ/mol
  3. 6050.4 kJ/mol
  4. 8407.7 kJ/mol
  5. 11022.7 kJ/mol
  6. 15164.1 kJ/mol
  7. 17868 kJ/mol
  8. 92038.1 kJ/mol
  9. 106434.3 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for fluorine

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[He] 2s2 2p5
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p5
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 7
Valence electrons 7
Valency electrons 1
Bohr model
FluorineElectron shell for Fluorine, created by Injosoft ABF
Figure: Shell diagram of Fluorine (F) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Fluorine

DiscoveryAndré-Marie Ampère (1810)
First isolationHenri Moissan (1886)
Named byHumphry Davy, André-Marie Ampère
Discovery of fluorine
Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning 'flow' gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production.


List of unique identifiers for Fluorine in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7782-41-4
ChemSpider ID4514530
EC number231-954-8
PubChem CID Number24524