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Bismuth (Bi)

Bismuth is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Bi and atomic number 83 with an atomic weight of 208.98 u and is classed as post-transition metal and is part of group 15 (nitrogen group). Bismuth is solid at room temperature.

Bismuth in the periodic table

Atomic number83
Group15 (Nitrogen group)
ClassificationPost-Transition Metal
AppearanceLustrous silver
Color Gray
Number of protons83 p+
Number of neutrons126 n0
Number of electrons83 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaBismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent post-transition metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density9.78 g/cm3
Atomic weight208.98 u

Thermal properties

Melting point544.7 K
271.55 °C
520.79 °F
Boiling point1837 K
1563.85 °C
2846.93 °F
Heat of vaporization179 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.02
Electron affinity90.924 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5
(a mildly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 703 kJ/mol
  2. 1610 kJ/mol
  3. 2466 kJ/mol
  4. 4370 kJ/mol
  5. 5400 kJ/mol
  6. 8520 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for bismuth

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 6s2 6p3
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Valence electrons 5
Valency electrons 3,5
Bohr model
BismuthElectron shell for Bismuth, created by Injosoft ABBi
Figure: Shell diagram of Bismuth (Bi) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Bismuth

DiscoveryJabirian corpus (1000)
Discovery of bismuth
Bismuth was known since ancient times, but often confused with tin and lead, which are chemically similar. The Incas used bismuth (along with the usual copper and tin) in a special bronze alloy for knives. Agricola (1546) states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead. This was based on observation of the metals and their physical properties. Miners in the age of alchemy also gave bismuth the name tectum argenti, or "silver being made" in the sense of silver still in the process of being formed within the Earth. Beginning with Johann Heinrich Pott in 1738, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and Torbern Olof Bergman, the distinctness of lead and bismuth became clear, and Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated in 1753 that this metal is distinct from lead and tin.


List of unique identifiers for Bismuth in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-69-9
ChemSpider ID4514266
EC number231-177-4
PubChem CID Number5359367