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Lead (Pb)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaLead (/lɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.

Lead in the periodic table

Atomic number82
Element categoryPost-Transition Metal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density11.34 g/cm3
Atomic weight207.21 u
Melting point600.61 K
327.46 °C
621.428 °F
Boiling point2022 K
1748.85 °C
3179.93 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.87
Electron affinity34.4204 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
1715.6 kJ/mol
2 1450.5 kJ/mol
3 3081.5 kJ/mol
4 4083 kJ/mol
5 6640 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4


Discovered byAfrica
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