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Lead (Pb)

Lead is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Pb and atomic number 82 with an atomic weight of 207.21 u and is classed as post-transition metal and is part of group 14 (carbon group). Lead is solid at room temperature.

Lead in the periodic table

Atomic number82
Group14 (Carbon group)
ClassificationPost-Transition Metal
AppearanceMetallic gray
Color SlateGray
Number of protons82 p+
Number of neutrons125 n0
Number of electrons82 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaLead (/lɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density11.34 g/cm3
Atomic weight207.21 u

Thermal properties

Melting point600.61 K
327.46 °C
621.428 °F
Boiling point2022 K
1748.85 °C
3179.93 °F
Heat of vaporization177.9 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.87
Electron affinity34.4204 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 715.6 kJ/mol
  2. 1450.5 kJ/mol
  3. 3081.5 kJ/mol
  4. 4083 kJ/mol
  5. 6640 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for lead

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Valence electrons 4
Valency electrons 2,4
Bohr model
LeadElectron shell for Lead, created by Injosoft ABPb
Figure: Shell diagram of Lead (Pb) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Lead

DiscoveryAfrica (7000 BC)
Discovery of lead
Metallic lead beads dating back to 7000–6500 BCE have been found in Asia Minor and may represent the first example of metal smelting. At that time lead had few (if any) applications due to its softness and dull appearance. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use lead minerals in cosmetics, an application that spread to Ancient Greece and beyond. The oldest known artifact of lead is a statuette found at the temple of Osiris on the site of Abydos dated around 3800 BC.


List of unique identifiers for Lead in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7439-92-1
ChemSpider ID4509317
EC number231-100-4
PubChem CID Number5352425