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Tungsten (W)

Tungsten is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol W and atomic number 74 with an atomic weight of 183.841 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 6 (chromium group). Tungsten is solid at room temperature.

Tungsten in the periodic table

Atomic number74
Group6 (Chromium group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceGrayish white, lustrous
Color Gray
Number of protons74 p+
Number of neutrons110 n0
Number of electrons74 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaTungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74. The word tungsten comes from the Swedish language tung sten, which directly translates to heavy stone. Its name in Swedish is volfram, however, in order to distinguish it from scheelite, which in Swedish is alternatively named tungsten.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density19.25 g/cm3
Atomic weight183.841 u

Thermal properties

Melting point3695 K
3421.85 °C
6191.33 °F
Boiling point6203 K
5929.85 °C
10705.73 °F
Heat of vaporization422.58 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.36
Electron affinity78.76 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6
(a mildly acidic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 770 kJ/mol
  2. 1700 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for tungsten

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d4 6s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Valence electrons 2
Valency electrons 6
Bohr model
TungstenElectron shell for Tungsten, created by Injosoft ABW
Figure: Shell diagram of Tungsten (W) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Tungsten

Discovery and first isolationJuan José Elhuyar, Fausto Elhuyar (1783)
Named byTorbern Bergman (1781)
Discovery of tungsten
In 1781, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite (at the time called tungsten). Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing this acid. In 1783, José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, at the Royal Basque Society in the town of Bergara, Spain, the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element (they called it "wolfram" or "volfram").


List of unique identifiers for Tungsten in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-33-7
ChemSpider ID22403
EC number231-143-9
PubChem CID Number23964