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Yttrium (Y)

Yttrium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Y and atomic number 39 with an atomic weight of 88.9058 u and is classed as transition metal and is part of group 3 (scandium group). Yttrium is solid at room temperature.

Yttrium in the periodic table

Atomic number39
Group3 (Scandium group)
ClassificationTransition Metal
AppearanceSilvery white
Color Silver
Number of protons39 p+
Number of neutrons50 n0
Number of electrons39 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaYttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density4.472 g/cm3
Atomic weight88.9058 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1799 K
1525.85 °C
2778.53 °F
Boiling point3203 K
2929.85 °C
5305.73 °F
Heat of vaporization363.3 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.22
Electron affinity29.6 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3
(a weakly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 600 kJ/mol
  2. 1180 kJ/mol
  3. 1980 kJ/mol
  4. 5847 kJ/mol
  5. 7430 kJ/mol
  6. 8970 kJ/mol
  7. 11190 kJ/mol
  8. 12450 kJ/mol
  9. 14110 kJ/mol
  10. 18400 kJ/mol
  11. 19900 kJ/mol
  12. 36090 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for yttrium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d1 5s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Valence electrons 3
Valency electrons 3
Bohr model
YttriumElectron shell for Yttrium, created by Injosoft ABY
Figure: Shell diagram of Yttrium (Y) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Yttrium

DiscoveryJohan Gadolin (1794)
First isolationFriedrich Wöhler (1838)
Discovery of yttrium
In 1787, part-time chemist Carl Axel Arrhenius found a heavy black rock in an old quarry near the Swedish village of Ytterby (now part of the Stockholm Archipelago). Thinking it was an unknown mineral containing the newly discovered element tungsten, he named it ytterbite[d] and sent samples to various chemists for analysis. Johan Gadolin at the University of Åbo identified a new oxide (or "earth") in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and published his completed analysis in 1794. Anders Gustaf Ekeberg confirmed the identification in 1797 and named the new oxide yttria. Friedrich Wöhler is credited with first isolating the metal in 1828 by reacting a volatile chloride that he believed to be yttrium chloride with potassium. Until the early 1920s, the chemical symbol Yt was used for the element, after which Y came into common use.


List of unique identifiers for Yttrium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-65-5
ChemSpider ID22429
EC number231-174-8
PubChem CID Number23993