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Yttrium (Y)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaYttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element.

Yttrium in the periodic table

SymbolY
Atomic number39
Group3
Period5
Blockd
Element categoryTransition Metal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density4.472 g/cm3
Atomic weight88.9058 u
Melting point1799 K
1525.85 °C
2778.53 °F
Boiling point3203 K
2929.85 °C
5305.73 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.22
Electron affinity29.6 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3
(a weakly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
1600 kJ/mol
2 1180 kJ/mol
3 1980 kJ/mol
4 5847 kJ/mol
5 7430 kJ/mol
6 8970 kJ/mol
7 11190 kJ/mol
8 12450 kJ/mol
9 14110 kJ/mol
10 18400 kJ/mol
11 19900 kJ/mol
12 36090 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d1 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2

History

Discovered1794
Discovered byJohan Gadolin
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