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Germanium (Ge)

Germanium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Ge and atomic number 32 with an atomic weight of 72.6308 u and is classed as metalloid and is part of group 14 (carbon group). Germanium is solid at room temperature.

Germanium in the periodic table

Atomic number32
Group14 (Carbon group)
Color Gray
Number of protons32 p+
Number of neutrons41 n0
Number of electrons32 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGermanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density5.323 g/cm3
Atomic weight72.6308 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1211.4 K
938.25 °C
1720.85 °F
Boiling point3106 K
2832.85 °C
5131.13 °F
Heat of vaporization334.3 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.01
Electron affinity118.935 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4 −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 762 kJ/mol
  2. 1537.5 kJ/mol
  3. 3302.1 kJ/mol
  4. 4411 kJ/mol
  5. 9020 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for germanium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 4
Valence electrons 4
Valency electrons 4,2
Bohr model
GermaniumElectron shell for Germanium, created by Injosoft ABGe
Figure: Shell diagram of Germanium (Ge) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Germanium

PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1869)
Discovery and first isolationClemens Winkler (1886)
Discovery of germanium
Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the discovery of the elements. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin. Because of its position in his periodic table, Mendeleev called it ekasilicon (Es), and he estimated its atomic weight to be 70 (later 72). In 1886, Clemens Winkler at Freiberg University found the new element, along with silver and sulfur, in the mineral argyrodite. Winkler named the element after his country, Germany. Germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores.


List of unique identifiers for Germanium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-56-4
ChemSpider ID4885606
EC number231-164-3
PubChem CID Number6326954