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Germanium (Ge)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGermanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.

Germanium in the periodic table

Atomic number32
Element categoryMetalloid

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density5.323 g/cm3
Atomic weight72.6308 u
Melting point1211.4 K
938.25 °C
1720.85 °F
Boiling point3106 K
2832.85 °C
5131.13 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)2.01
Electron affinity118.935 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−4 −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
1762 kJ/mol
2 1537.5 kJ/mol
3 3302.1 kJ/mol
4 4411 kJ/mol
5 9020 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 4


Discovered byClemens Winkler
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