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Aluminium (Al)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaAluminium (or aluminum; see different endings) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust.

Aluminium in the periodic table

SymbolAl
Atomic number13
Group13
Period3
Blockp
Element categoryPost-Transition Metal

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density2.7 g/cm3
Atomic weight26.9815 u
Melting point933.47 K
660.32 °C
1220.576 °F
Boiling point2743 K
2469.85 °C
4477.73 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.61
Electron affinity41.762 kJ/mol
Oxidation states−2, −1, +1, +2, +3
(an amphoteric oxide)
Ionization energies
1577.5 kJ/mol
2 1816.7 kJ/mol
3 2744.8 kJ/mol
4 11577 kJ/mol
5 14842 kJ/mol
6 18379 kJ/mol
7 23326 kJ/mol
8 27465 kJ/mol
9 31853 kJ/mol
10 38473 kJ/mol
11 42647 kJ/mol
12 201266 kJ/mol
13 222316 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 3

History

Discovered1825
Discovered byHans Christian Ørsted
Named byHumphry Davy
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