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Erbium (Er)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaErbium is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, with symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements on Earth. As such, it is a rare earth element which is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden, where yttrium, ytterbium, and terbium were discovered.

Erbium in the periodic table

Atomic number68
Element categoryLanthanide

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density9.066 g/cm3
Atomic weight167.259 u
Melting point1802 K
1528.85 °C
2783.93 °F
Boiling point3141 K
2867.85 °C
5194.13 °F

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.24
Electron affinity30.1 kJ/mol
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3
(a basic oxide)
Ionization energies
1589.3 kJ/mol
2 1150 kJ/mol
3 2194 kJ/mol
4 4120 kJ/mol

Electron configuration

Elektronkonfiguration (shorthand)[Xe] 4f12 6s2
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f12 5s2 5p6 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2


Discovered byCarl Gustaf Mosander
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