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Cerium (Ce)

Cerium is a chemical element of the periodic table with chemical symbol Ce and atomic number 58 with an atomic weight of 140.116 u and is classed as lanthanide. Cerium is solid at room temperature.

Cerium in the periodic table

Atomic number58
AppearanceSilvery white
Color Silver
Number of protons58 p+
Number of neutrons82 n0
Number of electrons58 e-
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium was named after the dwarf planet Ceres (itself named after the Roman goddess of agriculture).

Physical properties

Phase at STPSolid
Density6.77 g/cm3
Atomic weight140.116 u

Thermal properties

Melting point1068 K
794.85 °C
1462.73 °F
Boiling point3716 K
3442.85 °C
6229.13 °F
Heat of vaporization313.8 kJ/mol

Atomic properties

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)1.12
Electron affinity55 kJ/mol
Oxidation states+1, +2, +3, +4
(a mildly basic oxide)
Ionization energies
  1. 534.4 kJ/mol
  2. 1050 kJ/mol
  3. 1949 kJ/mol
  4. 3547 kJ/mol
  5. 6325 kJ/mol
  6. 7490 kJ/mol

Electron configuration for cerium

Electron configuration
Shorthand configuration
[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Electron configuration
Full configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f1 5s2 5p6 5d1 6s2
Electron configuration chart
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
Valence electrons 2
Valency electrons 4
Bohr model
CeriumElectron shell for Cerium, created by Injosoft ABCe
Figure: Shell diagram of Cerium (Ce) atom.
Orbital Diagram

The history of Cerium

DiscoveryMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Wilhelm Hisinger, Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1803)
First isolationCarl Gustaf Mosander (1838)
Named byJöns Jacob Berzelius
Discovery of cerium
Cerium was discovered in Bastnäs in Sweden by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger, and independently in Germany by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, both in 1803. Cerium was named by Berzelius after the asteroid Ceres, discovered two years earlier. The asteroid is itself named after the Roman goddess Ceres, goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships. Cerium was originally isolated in the form of its oxide, which was named ceria, a term that is still used. Ceria, as isolated in 1803, contained all of the lanthanides present in the cerite ore from Bastnäs, Sweden, and thus only contained about 45% of what is now known to be pure ceria. It was not until Carl Gustaf Mosander succeeded in removing lanthana and "didymia" in the late 1830s that ceria was obtained pure.


List of unique identifiers for Cerium in various chemical registry databases
CAS Number7440-45-1
ChemSpider ID22411
EC number231-154-9
PubChem CID Number23974